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Retaining walls

PROBLEM

The drop in energy from the upstream to the downstream side of an earth dam can be too abrupt and can lead to failures. It is also possible that a dam may be built on material which is too permeable.

SOLUTION

Seepage analysis of cutoff walls is useful in order to determine if high gradients develop at the base of the cutoff wall or on the downstream exit point. The automatic mesh refinement in SVFlux is excellent for addressing this type of problem. True exit gradients are often mis-calculated when a fixed-mesh applications are used to analyze this type of problem. Automatic mesh refinement causes additional nodes to be placed in critical zones in order to increase solution accuracy. Understanding the flow regime of earth dam structures is critical to their correct long-term performance. If internal/exit gradients become high it can lead to a piping failure. If there is rapid draindown it can lead to an internal build-up of pore-water pressures which may result in a slope-stability failure. Both of these scenarios may be analyzed with the SVFlux software.

Please note that most of these models can be downloaded through our SVOffice product suite.


RainfallInducedFillSlopeFailure

This mpdel provides verification against the model presented in the paper, "PREDICTION OF RAINFALL-INDUCED FILL SLOPE FAILURES" by Jason Y. Wu.

The analysis method used for this study is:
Janbu Simplified.

The slip surface shape is considered to be non-circular and the search method for the critical surface is "fully specified". The fully specified method allows the user to completely specify the geometry of the analyzed slip surface.This method is particularly useful for a back analysis in which the location of the slip surface is well known. The surface is defined by defining the center coordinates and the radius of the critical surface. In this model, each horizontal reinforcement consists of parallel rows varying in length, tensile capacity and bond strength.

Model filename: Slopes_Group_3 > RainfallInducedFillSlopeFailure.svm

Tags: Slopes_Group_3,SVSLOPE,2D,Steady-State,Fully Specified,Infrastructure,Slopes_1/2/3/SAFE,Benchmarking,Retaining walls,Slopes_Group_3

Attachments:

Support_End_Anchored

This model is presented to test the horizontal support loads. The Bishop and Janbu analysis methods should provide the same solutions as the horizontal Point Load, other methods should be similar as well.

The analysis methods used for this problem are:
Ordinary,
Bishop,
Janbu Simplified,
Corps#1,
Corps#2,
Lowe-Karafiath,
Spencer,
M-P (Intercolumn Force Function - Half-sine),
GLE (Intercolumn Force Function - Half-sine), and
Sarma (Intercolumn Force Function - Half-sine.

The search method for the critical slip surface is "Fully Specified - Ellipsoid" which allows the specification of an elliptical slip surface. The fully specified method implies that the analyzed slip surface is fully defined. Fully Specified method allows the user to specify the center-point as well as the tangent plane and aspect ratio of the ellipsoid to define the ellipse.

Model filename: Slopes_3D > Support_End_Anchored.svm

Tags: Slopes_3D,SVSLOPE,3D,Steady-State,Water Table,Transportation,Retaining walls,Benchmarking,Earth structures,Slopes_3D

Attachments:

Tension_crack

The analysis methods used for this problem are:
Ordinary,
Bishop,
Janbu Simplified,
Corps#1,
Corps#2,
Lowe-Karafiath,
Spencer,
M-P (Intercolumn Force Function - Half-sine),
GLE (Intercolumn Force Function - Half-sine), and
Sarma (Intercolumn Force Function - Half-sine).

The search method for the critical slip surface is "Fully Specified - Ellipsoid" which allows the specification of an elliptical slip surface. The fully specified method implies that the analyzed slip surface is fully defined. Fully Specified method allows the user to specify the center-point as well as the tangent plane and aspect ratio of the ellipsoid to define the ellipse.

Model filename: Slopes_3D > Tension_crack.svm

Tags: Slopes_3D,SVSLOPE,3D,Steady-State,Water Table,tension crack,Benchmarking,Slopes_3D,Earth structures,Retaining walls

Attachments:

VS_32 Case2

This particular model looks at the stability of a geosynthetic-reinforced embankment on soft soil.

The analysis methods used for studying this model is:
Bishop.

The search for the critical slip surface is fully specified and the critical surface shape is non-circular. The fully specified method allows the user to completely specify the geometry of the analyze slip surface. This method is particularly useful for a back analysis in which the location of the slip surface is well known. The surface is defined by defining the center coordinates and radius of the critical surface.

Model filename: Slopes_Group_1 > VS_32 Case2.svm

Tags: Slopes_Group_1,SVSLOPE,2D,Steady-State,Slope Supports,Fully Specified,Slope Group 1,Infrastructure,Slopes_1/2/3/SAFE,Benchmarking,Earth structures,Anchors,Retaining walls

Attachments:

VS_32 Case3

This particular model looks at the stability of a geosynthetic-reinforced embankment on soft soil.

The analysis methods used for studying this model is:
Bishop.

The search for the critical slip surface is fully specified and the critical surface shape is non-circular. The fully specified method allows the user to completely specify the geometry of the analyze slip surface. This method is particularly useful for a back analysis in which the location of the slip surface is well known. The surface is defined by defining the center coordinates and radius of the critical surface.

Model filename: Slopes_Group_1 > VS_32 Case3.svm

Tags: Slopes_Group_1,SVSLOPE,2D,Steady-State,Slope Supports,Fully Specified,Slope Group 1,Infrastructure,Slopes_1/2/3/SAFE,Benchmarking,Earth structures,Anchors,Retaining walls

Attachments:

VS_37_ReinZone

A back analysis is used to determine the amount of reinforcement required to stabilize a slope.

The analysis methods used for this study are:
Bishop, and
Janbu Simplified.

The search method for the critical slip surface is "Grid and Ponit". The critical slip surface is considered to be circular. In this methodology the trial slip surfaces are described by a grid of centers and a single point within the model regions through which all slip surfaces must pass. The user may define the searching objects through the definition of both grid and a single point on the drawing surface. The critical surface is considered to be circular.

Model filename: Slopes_Group_1 > VS_37_ReinZone.svm

Tags: Slopes_Group_1,SVSLOPE,2D,Steady-State,Grid and Point,Slope Group 1,Transportation,Retaining walls,Benchmarking,Earth structures

Attachments:

VS_39_Sand_Rein_NonCircular

This problem examines the stability of the embankment when it consists of sand or an undrained clay fill. The objective of this example is to compute the required reinforcement force to yield a factor of safety of 1.35. In each case presented, the embankment was first modeled without reinforcement and the critical slip surfaces determined.

The analysis methods used for studying this model are:
Spencer, and
GLE (Interslice Force Function - Half-sine).

The search for the critical slip surface is fully specified and the critical surface shape is non-circular. The fully specified method allows the user to completely specify the geometry of the analyze slip surface. This method is particularly useful for a back analysis in which the location of the slip surface is well known. The surface is defined by defining the center coordinates and radius of the critical surface.

Model filename: Slopes_Group_1 > VS_39_Sand_Rein_NonCircular.svm

Tags: Slopes_Group_1,Slope Group 1,SVSLOPE,2D,Steady-State,Slope Supports,Fully Specified,Transportation,Retaining walls,Benchmarking,Earth structures

Attachments:

VS_47

This particular analysis involves a planar failure through a soil nailed wall.The factor of safety is calculated for the undrained, homogeneous slope. In this case, the slope is reinforced by two rows of nails.

The analysis methods used for studying this model is:
Janbu Simplified.

The search for the critical slip surface is a block search and the slip surface shape is non-circular.

The block search method allows specification of a slip involving a "block" of soil with two hinge points. Trial slip surfaces are generated by placing a grid of trial vertices at each hinge point. Currently this searching method is only implemented in a 2-D analysis. However a 3-D wedge specified slip surface is most similar to a 2-D block search. The number of trial slip surfaces can then be calculated as: # trials = Left grid centers x Right grid centers




Model filename: Slopes_Group_1 > VS_47.svm

Tags: Slopes_Group_1,Slope Group 1,SVSLOPE,2D,Steady-State,Slope Supports,Block,Support / Reinforcement,Infrastructure,Slopes_1/2/3/SAFE,Benchmarking,Earth structures,Retaining walls,Anchors

Attachments:

VS_48

The purpose of this analysis is to determine the factor of safety for six different plane angles ranging from 45 to 70 degrees.

The analysis methods used for studying this model is:
Janbu Simplified.

The search for the critical slip surface is a Fully Specified search and the slip surface shape is non-circular. The fully specified method allows the user to completely specify the geometry of the analyze slip surface. This method is particularly useful for a back analysis in which the location of the slip surface is well known. The surface is defined by defining the center coordinates and radius of the critical surface.

Model filename: Slopes_Group_1 > VS_48.svm

Tags: Slopes_Group_1,Slope Group 1,SVSLOPE,2D,Steady-State,Slope Supports,Fully Specified,Support / Reinforcement,Infrastructure,Slopes_1/2/3/SAFE,Benchmarking,Earth structures,Retaining walls,Anchors

Attachments:

VS_55

The purpose of this model is to confirm the ability of SVSLOPE to analyze reinforced slopes using eight different techniques.

The analysis methods used for studying this model are:
Ordinary,
Bishop,
Janbu Simplified,
Lowe-Karafiath, and
Spencer.

The search for the critical slip surface is a grid and tangent search and the slip surface shape is circular. The grid and tangent methodology is one of the most common methods of determining the critical circular slip surface. In this methodology the trial slip surfaces are specified by a grid of centers and a set of lines to which the circular slip surface must be tangent.

Model filename: Slopes_Group_1 > VS_55.svm

Tags: Slopes_Group_1,SVSLOPE,2D,Steady-State,Water Table,Grid and Tangent,Slope Group 1,Support / Reinforcement,Infrastructure,Slopes_1/2/3/SAFE,Benchmarking,Earth structures,Anchors,Retaining walls

Attachments:

VS_56

This model is similar to the example model VS_55 with the exception that a dry tension crack is included.

The analysis methods used for studying this model are:
Ordinary,
Bishop,
Janbu Simplified,
Lowe-Karafiath, and
Spencer.

The search for the critical slip surface is a grid and tangent search and the slip surface shape is circular. The grid and tangent methodology is one of the most common methods of determining the critical circular slip surface. In this methodology the trial slip surfaces are specified by a grid of centers and a set of lines to which the circular slip surface must be tangent.

Model filename: Slopes_Group_1 > VS_56.svm

Tags: Slopes_Group_1,SVSLOPE,2D,Steady-State,Water Table,Grid and Tangent,Slope Group 1,Slopes_1/2/3/SAFE,Tension Cracks,Infrastructure,Classic Earth Slope,Benchmarking,Earth structures,Retaining walls,Anchors

Attachments:

VS_59

This scenario varies the effect of the reinforcement.The analysis represents a tie back wall and homogeneous sand. A single row of active grouted tie back support is installed for this problem. A water table is present, circular critical slip surfaces are considered and the resulting factor of safety is required.

The analysis methods used for studying this model are:
Ordinary,
Bishop,
Janbu Simplified,
Lowe-Karafiath, and
Spencer.

The search for the critical slip surface is a grid and tangent search and the slip surface shape is circular. The grid and tangent methodology is one of the most common methods of determining the critical circular slip surface. In this methodology the trial slip surfaces are specified by a grid of centers and a set of lines to which the circular slip surface must be tangent.

Model filename: Slopes_Group_1 > VS_59.svm

Tags: Slopes_Group_1,SVSLOPE,2D,Steady-State,Water Table,Slope Supports,Grid and Point,Slope Group 1,Infrastructure,Slopes_1/2/3/SAFE,Benchmarking,Earth structures,Retaining walls,Anchors

Attachments:

VW_5

The primary purpose of this model is to illustrate the analysis of the stability of a gravity retaining wall using a fully specifed slip surface.

The analysis methods used for the study of this example are:
Ordinary,
Bishop,
Janbu Simplified,
Corps#1,
Spencer,
M-P (Interslice Force Function - Half-sine), and
GLE (Interslice Force Function - Half-sine).

The search method used for obtaining the critical slip surface (the failure surface that results in the minimum factor of safety) is the fully specified method and the slip surface shape is considered to be non-circular.The fully specified method allows the user to completely specify the geometry of the analyzed slip surface.This method is particularly useful for a back analysis in which the location of the slip surface is well known. The surface is defined by defining the center coordinates and the radius of the critical surface.

Model filename: Slopes_Group_2 > VW_5.svm

Tags: Slopes_Group_2,SVSLOPE,2D,Steady-State,Fully Specified,Slope Group 2,Infrastructure,Slopes_1/2/3/SAFE,Benchmarking,Slopes_Group_2,Retaining walls

Attachments:

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